By: Curtis Peterson ©
I have been asked a lot lately why I think a person’s social identity would reduce a person’s experience of loneliness. So I have decided instead of retyping the same thing over and over I would just provide a link to the theoretical framework of identity and loneliness that I have developed over the past few years.
In this section the theoretical basis for the hypothesis that saliency of social identity may reduce an individual’s current subjective experience of loneliness will be explored. Figure 1 represented the combination of four formalized theories that together explain the theoretical relationship between social identification and loneliness (figure 1. Proposed model of loneliness reduction through social identification).
Based on the theories that will be presented after Figure 1, the theoretical model is based on the assumption that emotions occur through the cognitive appraisal of a person’s current situation, this is represented in the first three boxes of figure 1, starting from left to right. Under situation, one will note that saliency of one’s social identity is important in this model, as it will be argued that saliency of one’s identity is important in the evaluation of one’s situation and determines one’s evaluation of loneliness. Additionally, two other factors have a role in the appraisal process, (1) past emotional memories, and (2) social categorization and social identification. Both of these factors are used by the individual to determine whether the current situation is one that is potentially harmful to the individual (part emotional memories) and the importance of the saliency of the person’s social identity (social categorization and social identification). Based on these initial appraisal of the situation, emotional memories, and identity, the person will evaluate the situation as either they belong or they are lonely in the given situation.
An example of how this process may work in the real world is a student who identifies with be a college student at a given college – let us call this ABC University. In a given evaluative situation, for example, being home during the summer away from school mates and the ABC University environment. The individual may evaluate this situation as lacking in strong social connection and identity, and therefore, may evaluate their situation as lonely and experience the desire to return from summer break early, the alleviate the state of loneliness. Once the student returns to ABC University and the situation makes their identity as ABC University student salient again, and the shared bond (categorization) and similar connection (emotional belonging), the individual experiences an increase in belonging and a reduced feeling of loneliness.
The need to belong.
To understand the interplay between loneliness and social settings it important to start with a meta-theory of the need to belong (Fiske, 2013; Lieberman, 2013; Cacioppo, & Patrick, 2008). Lieberman (2013) who studies the neurological basis of social behavior and Cacioppo and Patrick (2008) who studies the neurological basis of loneliness both agree that the human brain has largely evolved to meet the social demands of humans. Lieberman (2013) extends this to the notion of evolution, stating that if evolution had a purpose and a consciousness it made a bet on the social aspects of the human brain rather than the individual survival skills of the human brain to assure it continued survival. Indeed, both Lieberman (2013); and Cacioppo and Patrick (2008), provide significant evidence that the higher evolved areas of the brain are used in the processing of social information rather than non-social information. Lieberman (2013) even provides compelling evidence that when individuals stop engaging in non-social actions the brain immediately reverts to the activation of the social areas of the brain without conscious knowledge or effort. Based on this neurological evidence, it has lead these researchers to theorize that one of the most basic needs of human beings is to create and maintain social connections.
While Lieberman (2013) and Cacioppo and Patrick (2008) developed a neurological basis for social belonging, Fiske (2013) develop a social cognitive needs model which places the need for belonging as an overarching motivation to four other cognitive and affective cognitive reasons for creating and maintaining social connections. In one’s motivation to belong Fiske (2013) theorizes that there are two relatively cognitive needs and motives, and two relatively affective needs and motives. The cognitive needs include the need for understanding and the need for control. The need to understanding is the need to have shared experiences that makes both the social and non-social world predictable. The second cognitive need is the need and motivation for control as defined as being able to have some control between behavior and the outcome of behavior. Again this can arise through shared meaning, storytelling, and knowing the experiences of others. Indeed, one can argue that while there are self-enhancements that drive this proposal and dissertation, the other social meaning is to provide a shared meaning of social identification and loneliness, and to provide a potential control between one’s behavior resulting from experience of loneliness and the potential positive outcomes through engaging in the social identification process. However, if the results of this proposal are not supported it also has shared understanding and control as well. Fiske (2013) also argued that there are two relatively affective needs and motives that are driven by the belonging process. The first is the need for self-enhancement, this is the basic need to be able to see one’s self as basically worthy and improvable. It can be argued that this can only occur within a social context either through direct social feedbacks or by comparing one’s self to some social norm. The second affective need is the need for trust which is defined by Fiske (2013) as seeing others as basically benign. Lieberman (2013) argued that the reason the human brain evolved in a large part to meet their social world is because it was an evolutionary advantage for human being to live in groups and work as a coherent unit. This social system also requires seeing individuals within that social system as relatively benign and safe. Therefore, Fiske (2013) felt this was an important aspect of one of the sub-categories of the need to belong, as she argues the more benign others are within a group, the more open and creative; and less closed and apprehensive.
Cacioppo and Patrick (2008) theorize that loneliness is a mechanism by which a person comes to understand that their need to belong or social connection is not being fulfilled. This will be discussed in the next section titled “Thwarted belonging leading to loneliness”. However, to summarize this section, the need to belong is considered a basic human need and can be explained by neurological evidence (Lieberman, 2013), and social cognitive evidence (Fiske, 2013). In the overall model presented in figure one the need for belonging would be evaluated in the appraisal of the situation for which the individual is attending. This appraisal can result in a thwarting of any five of Fiske’s cognitive needs leading to the negative emotional state of loneliness.
Thwarted belonging leading to loneliness.
As will be presented on the literature review on loneliness, the study of the topic has a long and rich history. What seems to be clear from this collection of data is that loneliness is a negative emotional state that motivates an individual to fulfill their needing for social connection and belonging (Ayalon, Shiovitz-Ezra, & Roziner, 2016). There are two types of loneliness that individuals experience best explained by Weiss (1973/1985) who theorized that individuals can experience two types of loneliness one emotional and the other social. Emotional loneliness is defined as a person’s subjective evaluation that they do not have sufficient emotionally close relationships. It can be argued under Fiske (2013) model that individuals need close emotional relationships to enhance their self-enhancement through honest feedback and encouragement. One could also argue emotional relationships are necessary to have a sufficient amount of trust, in a complex social world in which not everyone can be trusted.
The second form of loneliness described by Weiss (1973/1985) is social loneliness, also known in the literature as social isolation. Social loneliness is the appraisal that one does not have sufficient social connections. Not having sufficient social connections can thwart Fiske’s (2013) need for understanding and control, by not having sufficient information through social connection to make one’s world predictable and to have some sense of control. While the majority of Cacioppo’s work on loneliness has specifically dealt with social loneliness in relation to neurological process and health and mental health outcomes, he concedes that when social-emotional needs are not met this thwarts an individual’s confidence and abilities to create and develop meaningful social connections leading to the experience of chronic loneliness (Cacioppo, Christakis, & Fowler, 2009). The clear separation for emotional loneliness and social loneliness comes from evidence that individuals may still experience loneliness despite having several social connections, and when this has been investigated the main conclusion is that for these individuals while they may have a large social network, they lack any real meaningful emotionally close relationships (Grageset, Eide, Kirkevold, & Ramhoff, 2012). While as will be indicated later in this proposal loneliness can lead to some rather anti-social and self-defeating behaviors such as isolation (Cacioppo, Hawkley, & Thisted, 2010), drinking (Chen, & Feeley, 2015), hypervigilance and inability to trust (Lodder, Scholte, Clemens, Engels, Goosens, & Verhagen, 2015), focusing on non-social objects (Epley, Akalis, Waytz, & Cacioppo, 2008), and becoming more non-conforming, loneliness is largely seen as a negative emotional motivational model rather than a self-defeating model. Indeed, for the majority of individuals the experience of loneliness leads to increase social and emotional connections with others, satisfying and individuals need for belonging. As can be indicated in Figure 1, emotional and social loneliness are seen as outcomes of the evaluative process after a person has determined that they are not meeting their belonging needs. Loneliness is represented in the manner to emphasize that this emotional experience then leads to proceeding behaviors such as socialization or regaining emotional connections. Before moving on to the proposed mechanisms that may reduce loneliness (social identity) it is worth pausing for a moment and taking a look at the theoretical models of emotions, as loneliness is considered as an emotional state.
Emotional basis of loneliness.
Loneliness can be considered as fitting within two groups of emotions, the first is personal emotions where one has an individual experience of loneliness which aspects of this experience of loneliness are best explained by theories of emotions presented by Cacioppo and Gardner (1999). The second is loneliness can be experienced as a social and group emotion and be driven through social and group processes which is best explained by the group based emotion theory of Goldenberg, Halperin, Zomeren and Gross (2016). A full evaluation of Cacioppo and Gardner’s (1999) theory is provided in the section on loneliness while a full evaluation of Goldenberg, Halperin, Zomeren and Gross (2016) is provided in the section on social identity. The purpose here is to provide the theoretical underpinnings of each of these theories as they relate to the experience of emotions.
To begin the exploration of emotions it should begin with some basic ideas of emotions presented by Goldenberg, Halperin, Zomeren and Gross (2016) who provide evidence that the majority of research on emotions indicates that it is a situationally bound experienced based on an appraisal process of what elements of a situation are being attended to and how they are appraised based on the individual’s identity and experience with the situation. The idea and notion of emotions being situationally bound and go through an appraisal processes emphasizes a short fall in both the research on emotions and the personal experiences of emotions, in that, according to Goldenberg, Halperin, Zomeren and Gross (2016), emotions are well understood as they are experienced. This may explain why at times individuals may try to alleviate emotions through more destructive means rather than in a manner consistent with what the emotion means to the individual. Lastly, Goldenberg, Halperin, Zomeren and Gross (2016), point out that in research, that compares group emotions versus personal emotions, has largely concluded that they are not experienced qualitatively different. Meaning that emotional states as experienced by the individual versus group emotions experienced by a group, do not differ in any significant way. This according to Goldenberg, Halperin, Zomeren, and Gross (2016) indicates that social identity and social evaluation should be taken into consideration in the evaluation of emotional states. Goldenberg, Halperin, Zomeren and Gross (2016) theory and ideas of emotions are explored more deeply starting on page 106 and represented on Figure 2 on page 109. For this section on building a theoretical framework Goldenberg, Halperin, Zomeren and Gross (2016) ideas can be represented in the situation, attention, and appraisal aspects of Figure 1, in that their theory supports the appraisal process of emotions based on the current situation.
The second theory of emotions used for the development of this theoretical framework come from Cacioppo and Gardner (1999). Like Goldenberg, Halperin, Zomeren and Gross (2016), Cacioppo and Gardner (1999) theorized that emotions, while not always rationally based have cognitive evaluative processes by which a person may determine the meaning and purpose of a given emotional state. Cacioppo and Gardner (1999) theorized that emotions have both a safety and appetitive pathway or what they called channels. The safety channel are emotions that signal either the need to gain safety or that the organism is in a safe situation. In figure 1, this is represented through the appraisal of past emotional memories, which provides information on whether the situation is safe. The appetitive channel (also called hedonic needs by Goldenberg, Halperin, Zomeren and Gross, 2016) are needs that satisfy the basic needs of the organism but also the pleasure needs of the organism. In the context of loneliness and the belonging model of Fiske (2013), safety needs (fulfilled through trust, understanding, and control) when thwarted can lead to the negative emotional state of loneliness signaling to the organism that these basic needs are not being fulfilled. Appetitive needs under Fiske (2013) may include self-enhancement needs when not being satisfied may lead to the experience of loneliness. In addition to this emphasis on cognitive process, Cacioppo and Gardner (1999), also placed emphasis on socio-emotional development as an important understanding of not only how one will experience an emotion but understand and cope with it as well. The emphasis of socio-emotional development is represented as past emotional memories in Figure 1 to emphasize that individual’s experience with emotions and their already developed personal theories about emotions has significant implications of how one will evaluate the current situation and therefore the proceeding emotional state. One question that this proposal is trying to determine, is if emotional states – such as loneliness – are situationally bound, then there must at least theoretically, be a way to change situational variables that can lead to a changing evaluation of the situation and therefore the experience of the given emotion. This proposal theorizes that a potential situational variable is the saliency of one’s social identity. The next section will provide a theoretical overview of social identity theory.
Social identity theory and social categorization theory.
This research builds on the research conducted on Social Identity Theory (SIT) and Social Categorization Theory (SCT) research findings, which was originally formulated by Tajfel and Turner in 1982. According to SIT individuals seek groups which have similar attributes that they have. This leads to group affiliation and the development of a social identity based on the qualities of that group (Turner, 1982). Once individuals start to develop a social identity in order to protect that identity he or she will categorize individuals into either in-groups or out-groups as described by SCT (Abrams, 2014). Like one’s personal identity, individuals like to think of themselves as good people, in general, therefore they will implement protective mechanisms to enhance their social identity and have their social identity protected (Carter, 2013). Accordingly, most research on SIT has focused on how individuals protect their social identity through engaging in prejudice and discrimination towards out-groups (Kumar, Seay, & Karabenick, 2011). However, recent research has focused on the positive aspects of social identity, for example Haslam (2014) provided evidence that a sense of social identity among medical doctor residency students can enhance their educational experience through developing a sense of identity as a doctor. Haslam (2014) also argues that social identity is becoming such a key variable in individual’s social and personal experiences that both mental health and physical health practitioners should not deny the importance one’s social identity has and should work to enhance their social identity for the welfare of their clients and patients.
Specific to this research, the original assumption of SIT is that individuals seek out a social identity in order to enhance their self-esteem (Turner, 1982). However, research on this self-esteem hypothesis has been inconsistent and generally does not support this view (Abrams, 2014). This has lead Abrams (2014) to believe that there are probably multiple mechanisms which motivates an individual to engage in social identification. The argument of this proposal is the experience of loneliness maybe on motivating factor for one to engage in social identification. More importantly, is that social identity maybe a protective factor in reducing not only the evaluative phase of loneliness but also the experience of loneliness. This is represented in Figure 1, part of the evaluation process, and allows the individual to interpret the situation as one in which they belong both emotionally and socially. If this assumption is correct, it will indicate that social identity does indeed have a key role in an individual’s experience of loneliness. As will be shown in later sections in this chapter social identities provide the opportunity for social belonging and the development of emotional bonds based on similar attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs. This emotional bond and the feeling of social belonging may provide relief of the emotional pains of loneliness. Additionally, the saliency of which can be placed in any situation in which maybe lonely evoking for individuals, subsequently reducing the chance that individual will experience loneliness. Emphasis on the saliency of one’s social identity is important, because research on social identity finds that unless one’s identity is made salient within the situation, it has little influence affective and behavioral outcomes (Carter, 2013). With this theoretical model in mind, focus will now turn to research that is relevant to understanding loneliness and social identity both from a historical standpoint and a contemporary view.
Full Reference List
Abrams, D. (2014). Social identity and intergroup relations. In Mikulincer, M., & Chaver, P.R. (Eds) APA Handbook of Personality and Social Psychology (Vol. 2). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Allport, G.W. (1937). Personality: A Psychological Interpretation. New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company.
Allport, G.W. (1955). Becoming: Basic Considerations for a Psychology of Personality (Based on the Terry Lectures delivered at Yale University). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
Allport, G.W. (1958). The Nature of Prejudice. Garden City, NY: Doubleday Anchor Books.
Allport, G.W. (1960). Personality and Social Encounter. Boston, MA: Beacon Press
Alpass, F.M., & Neville, S. (2003). Loneliness, health and depression in older males. Aging and Mental Health, 7(3), 212-216
Amiot, C. E., & Aubin, R. M. (2013). Why and how are you attached to your social group? Investigating different forms of social identification. British Journal of Social Psychology, 52(3), 563-586.
Amodio, D.M. (2008). The neuroscience of intergroup relations. European Review of Social Psychology, 18, 1-54
Amiot, C. E., & Aubin, R. M. (2013). Why and how are you attached to your social group? Investigating different forms of social identification. British Journal Of Social Psychology, 52(3), 563-586.Anderson, C. A., Miller, R. S., Riger, A. L., Dill, J. C., & Sedikides, C. (1994). Behavioral and characterological attributional styles as predictors of depression and loneliness: Review, refinement, and test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(3), 549-558. doi:10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1689
Ang, C., Mansor, A.T., and Tan, K. (2014). Pangs of loneliness breed material lifestyle but don’t power up life satisfaction of young people: The moderating effect of gender. Social Indic Research, 117, 353-365
Arpin, S.N., Mohr, C.D., & Brannan, D. (2015). Having friends and feeling lonely: A daily process of examination of transient loneliness, socialization, and drinking behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41(5), 615-628, DOI: 10.1177/0146467215569773
Aschenbrenner, K. M., & Schaefer, R. E. (1980). Minimal group situations: Comments on a mathematical model and on the research paradigm. European Journal of Social Psychology, 10(4), 389-398. doi:10.1002/ejsp.2420100406
Ayalon, L., Shiovitz-Ezra, S., & Roziner, I. (2016). A cross-lagged model of the reciprocal associations of loneliness and memory functioning. Psychology and Aging, 31(3), 255-261. doi:10.1037/pag0000075
Bangee, M., Harris, R.A., Bridges, N., Rotneberg, K.J., & Qualter, Pz., (2014). Loneliness and attention to social threat in young adults: Findings from an eye tracker study. Personality and Individual Differences, 63(2014) 16–23
Baumeister, B. F., & Leary, M. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497-529. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497
Beart, S., Hardy, G., & Buchan, L. (2005). How People with Intellectual Disabilities View Their Social Identity: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 18(1), 47-56. doi:10.1111/j.1468-3148.2004.00218.x
Bizumic, B., Reynolds, K.J., Turner, J.C., Bromhead, D., & Subasic, E. (2009). The role of the group in individual functioning: Social identification and the psychological well-being of staff and students. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 58(1), 171-192
Bornewasser, M., & Bober, J. (1987). Individual, social group and intergroup behaviour. Some conceptual remarks on the social identity theory. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 1996.
Bornstein, G., Crum, L., Wittenbraker, J., Harring, K., Insko, C. A., & Thibaut, J. (1983). On the measurement of social orientations in the minimal group paradigm. European Journal of Social Psychology, 13(4), 321-350. doi:10.1002/ejsp.2420130402
Brewer, M. B. (1979). In-group bias in the minimal intergroup situation: A cognitive-motivational analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 86(2), 307-324. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.86.2.307
Brooks, L. M. (1933). The relation of spatial isolation to psychosis. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 27(4), 375-379. doi:10.1037/h0072806
Brown, R. J., Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1980). Minimal group situations and intergroup discrimination: Comments on the paper by Aschenbrenner and Schaefer. European Journal of Social Psychology, 10(4), 399-414. doi:10.1002/ejsp.2420100407
Bukoff, A., & Elman, D. (1979). Repeated exposure to liked and disliked social stimuli. The Journal of Social Psychology, 107(1), 133-134. doi:10.1080/00224545.1979.9922685
Burford, B. (2012). Group processes in medical education: Learning from social identity theory. Medical Education, 56, 143-152
Burke, P.J., & Stets, J.E. (2009). Identity theory. New York, NY: Oxford Press.
Caccioppo, J.T. & Gardner, W.L. (1999). Emotion. Annual Review of Psychology. 50, 191-214.
Cacioppo, J. T., Cacioppo, S., & Cole, S. W. (2013). Social Neuroscience and Social Genomics: The Emergence of Multi-Level Integrative Analyses. International Journal of Psychological Research, 61-6.
Cacioppo, J.T., & Patrick, W. (2008). Loneliness: Human Nature and the need for social connection. New York, NY: W.T. Horton & Company
Cacioppo, J.T., Christakis, N.A., & Fowler, J.H. (2009). Alone in the crowd The structure and spread of loneliness in a large social network. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(6), 977-991
Cacioppo, J.T., Frum, C., Asp, E., Weiss, R.M., Lewis, J.W., & Cacioppo, S. (2013). A quantitative meta-analysis of functional image studies of social rejection. Scientific Reports, 3, 2027 DOI: 10.1038/srep02027
Cacioppo, J.T., Hawkley, L.C., & Preacher, K.J. (2010). Loneliness impairs daytime functioning but not sleep duration. Health Psychology, 29(2), 124-129
Cacioppo, J.T., Hawkley, L.C., & Thisted, R.A. (2009). Loneliness predicts reduced physical activity: Cross-sectional & longitudinal analyses. Health Psychology, 28(3), 354-363
Cacioppo, J.T., Hawkley, L.C., & Thisted, R.A. (2010). Perceived social isolation makes me sad: 5-year cross-lagged analyses of loneliness and depressive symptomatology in the Chicago health, aging, and social relations study. Psychology and Aging, 25(2), 453-463
Cacioppo, J.T., Hawkley, L.C., Berntson, G.G., Ernst, J.M., Gibbs, A.C., Stickgold, R., & Hobson, J.A. (2002). Do lonely days invade the nights? Potential social modulation of sleep efficiency. Psychological Science, 13(4), 384-387
Cacioppo, J.T., Norris, C.J., Decety, J., Monteleone, G., & Nubaum, H. (2008). In the eye of the beholder: Individual differences in perceived social isolation predict regional brain activation to social stimuli. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21(1), 84-92
Cacioppo, S., Cacioppo, J.T., & Capitanio, J.P. (2014). Toward a neurology of loneliness. Psychological Bulletin, 140(6), 1464-1504
Carter, M.J. (2013). Advancing identity theory: Examining the relationship between activated identities and behavior in different social contexts. Social Psychology Quarterly, 76(3), 203-223
Catterson, J., & Hunter, S. C. (2010). Cognitive mediators of the effect of peer victimization on loneliness. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(3), 403-416. doi:10.1348/000709909X481274
Change, C., Chang, C., Biegel, D.E., Pernice-Duca, F., Min, M.O., & D’Angelo, L. (2014). Predictors of loneliness of clubhouse members. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 37(1), 51-54
Chen, Y., & Feeley, T. H. (2015). Predicting binge drinking in college students: Rational beliefs, stress, or loneliness? Journal of Drug Education, 45(3-4), 133-155. doi:10.1177/0047237916639812
Cicognani, E., Klimstra, T., & Goosens, L. (2014). Sense of community, identity status, and loneliness in adolescence: A cross-national study on Italian and Belgian youth. Journal of Community Psychology, 42(4), 414-432
Conoley, C.W., & Garber, R.A. (1985). Effects of reframing and self-control directives on loneliness, depression, and controllability. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 32(1), 139-142
Cooke, N.J. (2015). Team cognition as interaction. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 25(6), 415-419
Costabile, K.A. (2016). Narrative construction, social perceptions, and situational model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42(5), 589-602
de Minzi, M. R. (2006). Loneliness and Depression in Middle and Late Childhood: The Relationship to Attachment and Parental Styles. The Journal of Genetic Psychology: Research and Theory On Human Development, 167(2), 189-210. doi:10.3200/GNTP.167.2.189-210
Mita, T. H., Dermer, M., & Knight, J. (1977). Reversed facial images and the mere-exposure hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 597-601.
DeWall, C. N., & Pond, R. J. (2011). Loneliness and smoking: The costs of the desire to reconnect. Self and Identity, 10(3), 375-385. doi:10.1080/15298868.2010.524404
Dong, L., Lin, C., Li, T., Dou, D., & Zhou, L. (2015). The relationship between cultural identity and self-esteem among Chinese Uyghur college students: The mediating role of acculturation attitudes. Psychological Reports, 117(1), 302-318. doi:10.2466/17.07.PR0.117c12z8
Durak, M., & Senol-Durak, E. (2010). Psychometric qualities of the UCLA Loneliness Scale – Version 3 as applied in a Turkish culture. Educational Gerontology, 36, 988-1007
Eisenberger, N. I., Lieberman, M. D., & Williams, K. D. (2003). Does Rejection Hurt? An fMRI Study of Social Exclusion. Science, 302(5643), 290-292. doi:10.1126/science.1089134
Eisenberger, N.I. (2012). Broken hearts and broken bones: A neural perspective on the similarities between social and physical pain. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(1) 42-47, DOI: 10.117/0963721411429455
Epley, N., Akalis, S., Waytz, A., & Cacioppo, J.T (2008). Creating social connection through inferential reproduction: Loneliness and perceived agency in gadgets, gods, and greyhounds. Psychological Science, 19(2), 114-120
Feeney, B.C., & Collins, N.L. (2015). A new look at social support: Theoretical perspective on thriving through relationships. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 19(2), 112-147
Field, A., (2009). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS Statistics (4th ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications
Fiske, S. T. (2013). Social beings: Core motives in social psychology (3rd ed). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Fokkema, T., Gierveld, J.D., & Dykstra, P.A. (2012). Cross-national differences in older adult loneliness. The Journal of Psychology, 146(1-2), 201-228
Ford, J., O’Hare, D., & Henderson, R. (2013). Putting the ‘we’ into teamwork: Effects of priming personal or social identity on flight attendants’ perceptions of teamwork and communication. Human Factors, 55(3), 499-508. doi:10.1177/0018720812465311
Frosdick, R.B. (1918). The War and Navy Department Commission on training camp activities. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 79, 130-142
Ganley, R. M. (1989). Emotion and eating in obesity: A review of the literature. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 8(3), 343-361. doi:10.1002/1098-108X(198905)8:3<343::AID-EAT2260080310>3.0.CO;2-C
Gentina, E. (2014). Understanding the effects of adolescent girls’ social position within peer groups on exchange practices. Journal of Consumer Behavior, 13, 73-80
Goldenberg, A., Halprin, E., van Xomeren, M., & Gross, J.J. (2016). The process model of group-based emotion: integrating intergroup emotion and emotion regulation perspectives. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 20(2), 118-141, doi: 10.177/1088868315581263
Gonzalez, V. M., & Skewes, M. C. (2013). Solitary heavy drinking, social relationships, and negative mood regulation in college drinkers. Addiction Research & Theory, 21(4), 285-294. doi:10.3109/16066359.2012.714429
Gordon, P. C., & Holyoak, K. J. (1983). Implicit learning and generalization of the ‘mere exposure’ effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(3), 492-500. doi:10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1242
Grageset, J., Eide, G.E., Kirkevold, M., & Ramhoff, A.H. (2012). Emotional loneliness is associated with mortality among mentally intact nursing home residents with and without cancer: A five-year follow-up study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 22, 106-114
Gruepentrog, B.K., Harold, C.M., Holtz, B.C., Klimoski, R.J., & Marsh, S.M. (2012). Integrating social identity and the theory of planned behavior: Predicting withdrawal from organizational recruitment process. Personnel Psychology, 65, 723-753
Grush, J. E. (1976). Attitude formation and mere exposure phenomena: A nonartifactual explanation of empirical findings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33(3), 281-290. doi:10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1991
Hansson, R.O., & Jones, W.H. (1981). Loneliness, cooperation, and conformity among American undergraduates. The Journal of Social Psychology, 115, 103-108
Haslam, S.A. (2014). Making good theory practical: Five lessons for an applied social identity approach to challenges of organizational, health, and clinical psychology. British Journal of Social Psychology, 53, 1-20
Hawkley, L.C., & Cacioppo, J.T., Preacher, (2010). Loneliness matters: A theoretical and empirical review of consequences and mechanisms. Annual Behavioral Medicine. 40, 218-227
Hawkley, L.C., & Cacioppo, J.T. (2010). Loneliness matters: A theoretical and empirical review of consequences and mechanisms. Annual Behavioral Medicine. 40, 218-227
Hellmich, N. (2014). Feeling lonely? It may increase risk of early death. Retrieved from: http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/02/17/loneliness-seniors-early-death/5534323/
Herringer, L. G., & Garza, R. T. (1987). Perceptual accentuation in minimal groups. European Journal of Social Psychology, 17(3), 347-352. doi:10.1002/ejsp.2420170308
Hertz, S. G., & Krettenauer, T. (2016). Does moral identity effectively predict moral behavior?: A meta-analysis. Review of General Psychology, 20(2), 129-140. doi:10.1037/gpr0000062
Hogg, M.A., & Turner, J.C. (1987). Intergroup behavior, self-stereotyping, and the salience of social categories. British Journal of Social Psychology, 26, 325-340, doi:10.1111/j.2044-8309.1987.tb00795.x
Hogg, M.A., Knippenberg, D.V., & Rast III, D.E. (2012). The social identity theory of leadership: Theoretical origins, research findings, and conceptual developments. European Review of Social Psychology, 23, 258-304
Holt-Lunstad, J. (2015). Loneliness and Social Isolation as Risk Factors for Mortality: A Meta-Analytic Review. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10: 227-237, doi: 10.1177/1745691614568352
Howe, L. C., & Dweck, C. S. (2016). Changes in self-definition impede recovery from rejection. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42(1), 54-71. doi:10.1177/0146167215612743
Immonen, S., Valvanne, J., & Pitkälä, K. H. (2011). Older adults’ own reasoning for their alcohol consumption. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26(11), 1169-1176.
Jackson, J.W. (2011). Intragroup cooperation as a function of group performance and group identity. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 15(4), 343-356
Jakeobovits, L. A. (1968). Effects of mere exposure: A comment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 9(2, Pt.2), 30-32. doi:10.1037/h0025750
Jakubiak, B.K., & Feeney, B.C., (2016). Affectionate touch to promote relational, psychological, and physical well-being in adulthood: A theoretical model and review of the research. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 1–25, doi: 10.1177/1088868316650307
James, W. (1890). Psychology: American Science Series, Vol. I and II. New York, NY: Henry Holt & Co.
Jaremka, L.M., Andridge, R.R., Alfano, C.M., Povoscki, S.P., Lipari, A.M., Agnese, D.M., Arnold, M.W., Faffarm W.B., Yee, L.D., Carson, III, W.E., Bekaii-Sabb, T., Martin, Jr., E.W., Schmidt, C.R., & Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K. (2014). Pain, depression, and fatigue: Loneliness as a longitudinal risk factor. Health Psychology, 33(9), 948-957
Jones, A.C., Schinka, K.C., van Dulman, H.M., Bossarte, R.M., Swahn, M.H. (2011). Changes in loneliness during middle childhood predicts risk for adolescent suicidality indirectly through mental health problems. Journal of Clinical and Adolescent Psychology, 40(6), 818-824
Jones, W.h., Hobbs, S.A., & Hockenbury, D. (1982). Loneliness and social skills. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42(4), 682-689
Kawakami, K., Dovidio, J. F., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2003). Effect of social category priming on personal attitudes. Psychological Science, 14(4), 315-319. doi:10.1111/1467-9280.14451
Ketturat, C., Frisch, J.U., Ullrich, J., Hausser, J.A., Dick, R., & Mojzisch, A. (2016). Disaggregating within- and between-person effects of social identification on subjective and endorcinological stress reaction in a real-life situation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42(2), 147-160
Kong, X., Wei, D., Li, W., Cun, L., Xue, S., Zhang, Q., & Qiu, J. (2015). Neuroticism and extraversion mediate the association between loneliness and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Experimental Brain Research, 233(1), 157-164. doi:10.1007/s00221-014-4097-4
Korostelina, K. (2014). Intergroup identity insults: A social identity theory perspective. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 14, 214–229, DOI: 10.1080/15283488.2014.921170
Kumar, R., Seay, N., & Karabenick, S. (2011). Shades of White: Identity status, stereotypes, prejudice, and xenophobia. Educational Studies: Journal Of The American Educational Studies Association, 47(4), 347-378.
Kuyper, L., & Fokkema, T. (2010). Loneliness among older lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults: The role of minority stress. Arch Sexual Behavior, 39, 1171-1180
Lodder, G. A., Scholte, R. J., Clemens, I. H., Engels, R. E., Goossens, L., & Verhagen, M. (2015). Loneliness and hypervigilance to social cues in females: An eye-tracking study. Plos ONE, 10(4),
Lammers, J., Stoker, J.I., Rink, F., & Galinsky, A.D. (2016). Top have control over or to be free from others? The desire for power reflects a need for autonomy. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42(4), 498-512
Lasgaard, M., Goossens, L., & Alklit, A. (2011). Loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and suicide ideation in adolescence: Cross-national and longitudinal analyses. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 137-150
Lemyre, L., & Smith, P. M. (1985). Intergroup discrimination and self-esteem in the minimal group paradigm. Journal of Personality And Social Psychology, 49(3), 660-670. doi:10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.520
Leonardelli, G. J., & Toh, S. M. (2015). Social categorization in intergroup contexts: Three kinds of self‐categorization. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 9(2), 69-87. doi:10.1111/spc3.12150
Leonardelli, G.J., & Loyd, D.L. (2016). Optimal distinctiveness signals membership trust. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 42(7), 843-854, doi: 10.1177/0146167216643934
Lieberman, M.D. (2013). Social: Why our brains are wired to connect. New York, NY: Broadway Books.
Lin, L., & Guo, Q. (2007). Loneliness and health-related quality of life for the empty nest elderly in the rural area of a mountainous county in China. Quality of Life Research, 16, 1275-1280
Lodder, G.M.A., Scholte, R.H.J., Clemens, I.A.H., Engels, R.S.M.E., Goosens, L., & Verhagen (2015). Loneliness and hypervigilance to social cures in females: An eye-tracking study. PLOS ONE, DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0125141
Lunt, P.K. (1991). The perceived causal structure of loneliness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(1), 26-34
Luster, S.S., Nelson, L.J., Poulsen, F.O., & Willoubby, B.J. (2013). Emerging adult sexual attitudes and behaviors: Does shyness matter? Emerging Adulthood, 1(3), 185-195, DOI: 10.1177/2167696813475611
Mackia, D.M., & Smith, E.R. (2015). Intergroup emotions. In Milkulincer, M., & Shaver, P.R. (Eds). APA Handbook of Personality and Social Psychology: Vol.2 Group Process. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Martinam C.M.S., & Stevens, N.L. (2006). Breaking the cycle of loneliness? Psychological effects of a friendship enrichment program for older women. Aging and Mental Health, 10(5), 467-475
McWhirter, B. T. (1990). Loneliness: A review of current literature, with implications for counseling and research. Journal of Counseling & Development, 68(4), 417-422. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.1990.tb02521.x
Mehrabian, A., & Stefl, C.A. (1995). Basic temperament components of loneliness, shyness, and conformity. Social Behavior and Personality, 23(3), 253-264
Mita, T. H., Dermer, M., & Knight, J. (1977). Reversed facial images and the mere-exposure hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35(8), 597-601. doi:10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2067
Moghaddam, F. M., & Stringer, P. (1986). Trivial and important criteria for social categorization in the minimal group paradigm. The Journal of Social Psychology, 126(3), 345-354. doi:10.1080/00224545.1986.9713595
Most, T., Ingber, S., & Heled-Ariam, E. (2012). Social competence, sense of loneliness, and speech intelligibility of young children with hearing loss in individual inclusion and group inclusion. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 17(2), 259-272. doi:10.1093/deafed/enr049
Newall, N.E.G., Chipperfield, J.G., & Stewart, T.L. (2013). Consequences of loneliness on physical activity and mortality in older adults and the power of positive emotions. Health Psychology, 32(8), 921-924
Nurmi, J., Toivonen, S., Salmela-Aro, K., & Eronen, S. (1997). Social strategies and loneliness. The Journal of Social Psychology, 137(6), 764-777. doi:10.1080/00224549709595497
Oakes, P. J., & Turner, J. C. (1980). Social categorization and intergroup behaviour: Does minimal intergroup discrimination make social identity more positive?. European Journal of Social Psychology, 10(3), 295-301. doi:10.1002/ejsp.2420100307
Orehek, E. & Forest, A.L. (2016). When people serve as a means to goals: Implications of motivational account of close relationships. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 25(2), 79-84
Owen, J., & Fincham, F. D. (2011). Young adults’ emotional reactions after hooking up encounters. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40(2), 321-330. doi:10.1007/s10508-010-9652-x
Packer, D. J., Chasteen, A. L., & Kang, S. K. (2011). Facing social identity change: Interactive effects of current and projected collective identification on expectations regarding future self-esteem and psychological well-being. British Journal of Social Psychology, 50(3), 414-430. doi:10.1348/014466610X51968
Perry, R., & Sibley, C.G. (2011). Social dominance orientation: Mapping a baseline individual difference component across self-categorization. Journal of Individual Differences, 32(2), 110-116
Peterson, C.N., & Eastom, B.A. (on-going). Non-cognitive contributors to student success among first generation students. Helena, MT: Helena College University of Montana. Copy manuscript can be obtained by emailing Curtis.firstname.lastname@example.org
Rokach, A. (2000). Perceived causes of loneliness in adulthood. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15(1), 67-84
Rokach, A. (2001). Strategies of coping with loneliness throughout the lifespan. Current Psychology: Developmental, Learning, Personality, and Social. 20(1), 3-18
Rokach, A. (2007). Coping with loneliness among the terminally ill. Social Indicators Research, 82, 487-503
Rokach, A. (2012). Loneliness updated: An introduction. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 146(1-2), 1-6. doi:10.1080/00223980.2012.629501
Rokach, A., & Brock, H. (1997). Loneliness and the effects of life changes. The Journal of Psychology, 131(3), 284-298
Russell, D. (1996). UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3): Reliability, validity, and factor structure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 66, 20-40.
Russell, D. W., Cutrona, C. E., McRae, C., & Gomez, M. (2012). Is loneliness the same as being alone?. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary And Applied, 146(1-2), 7-22. doi:10.1080/00223980.2011.589414
Russell, D., Peplau, L.A., & Furguson, M.L. (1978). Developing a measure of loneliness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 42, 290-294
Sachdev, I., & Bourhis, R. Y. (1985). Social categorization and power differentials in group relations. European Journal of Social Psychology, 15(4), 415-434. doi:10.1002/ejsp.2420150405
Saegert, S., Swap, W., & Zajonc, R. B. (1973). Exposure, context, and interpersonal attraction. Journal of Personality And Social Psychology, 25(2), 234-242. doi:10.1037/h0033965
Segrin, C. & Passalacqua, S.A. (2010). Functions of loneliness, social support, health behaviors, and stress association with poor health. Health Communications, 25, 312-322
Segrin, C., & Domschke, T. (2011). Social support, loneliness, recuperative processes, and their direct and indirect effects on health. Health Communications, 26, 221-232
Segrin, C., Powell, H. L., Givertz, M., & Brackin, A. (2003). Symptoms of depression, relational quality, and loneliness in dating relationships. Personal Relationships, 10(1), 25-36. doi:10.1111/1475-6811.00034
Sells. S.B. (1948). Observational methods of research. Review of Educational Research, 18, 424-447
Shankar, A., McMunn, A., Banks, J., & Steptoe, A. (2011). Loneliness, social isolation, and behavioral and biological health indicators in older adults. Health Psychology 30(4) 377-385
Sherif, M., Harvey, O.J., White, B.J., Hood, W.R., & Sherif, C.W. (1961). Intergroup Conflict and Cooperation: The Robbers Cave Experiment. Norman, OK: A publication of the Institute of Group Relations University of Oklahoma
Simon, B., & Hastedt, C. (1999). Self-aspects as social categories: The role of personal importance and valence. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29(4), 479-487. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0992(199906)29:4<479::AID-EJSP939>3.0.CO;2-M
Smith, J.M. (2012). Towards a better understanding of loneliness in community-dwelling older adults. The Journal of Psychology, 146(3), 293-311
Stang, D. J. (1974). Methodological factors in mere exposure research. Psychological Bulletin, 81(12), 1014-1025. doi:10.1037/h0037419
Stokes, J. & Levin, I. (1986). Gender differences in predicting loneliness from social network characteristics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(5), 1069-1074
Suedfeld, P., Epstein, Y. M., Buchanan, E., & Landon, P. B. (1971). Effects of set on the ‘effects of mere exposure.’. Journal 0f Personality And Social Psychology, 17(2), 121-123. doi:10.1037/h0030378
Sullivan, H. S. (1953). The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. New York, NY: Norton.
Tajfel, H. (1969). Cognitive aspects of prejudice. Journal of Social Issues, 25, 79-97
Tajfel, H. (1982). Social Identity and Intergroup Relations. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In S. Worchel & W. G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations (The Nelson-Hall series in psychology) (pp. 7–24). Chicago, IL: Burnham.
Thompson, G. M. (1948). MMPI correlates of certain movement responses in the group Rorschachs of two college samples. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 12(6), 379-383. doi:10.1037/h0057028
Torres, H. L., & Gore-Felton, C. (2007). Compulsivity, substance use, and loneliness: The loneliness and sexual risk model (LSRM). Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 14(1), 63-75. doi:10.1080/10720160601150147
Turner, J.C. (1975). Social comparison and social identity: Some prospects for intergroup behavior. European Journal of Social Psychology, 5, 5-34
Turner, J.C. (1982). Towards a cognitive redefinition of the social group. In Tajfel, H. (Eds.) Social Identity and Intergroup Relations. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Turner, J.C., & Reynolds, K.J. (2003). The social identity perspective in intergroup relations: Theories, themes, and controversies. In Brown, R., & Gaertner (Eds) Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology: Intergroup processes. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, Ltd.
Vanhalst, J., Luyckx, K., Raes, F., & Goossens, L. (2012). Loneliness and depressive symptoms: The mediating and moderating role of uncontrollable ruminative thoughts. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary And Applied, 146(1-2), 259-276. doi:10.1080/00223980.2011.555433
Vassar, M., & Crosby, J.W. (2008). A reliability generalization study of coefficient alpha for the UCLA loneliness scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 90(6), 601-60
Veelen, R., Eisenbeiss, K.K., & Otten, S. (2016). Newcomers to social categories: Longitudinal predictors and consequences of in-group identification. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42(6), 811-825, DOI: 10.1177/0146167216643937
Veelen, R., Otten, S., Cabinu, M., & Hansen, N. (2015). An integrative model of social identification: Self-stereotyping and self-anchoring as two cognitive pathways. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 20(1), 3-26
Victor, S.R., & Bowling. A. (2012). A longitudinal analysis of loneliness among older people in Great Britain. The Journal of Psychology, 146(2), 313-332
Vider, S. (2004). Rethinking crowd violence: Self-categorization theory and the Woodstock 1999 riot. Journal for The Theory of Social Behaviour, 34(2), 141-166. doi:10.1111/j.0021-8308.2004.00240.x
Walker, M.H., & Lynn, F.B. (2013). The embedded self: A social Network approach to identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly, 76(2), 151-179
Watson-Jones, R.E., & Legare, C.H., (2016). The social function of group rituals. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 25(1), 42-46
Watson, G. (1930). Happiness among adult students of education. Journal of Educational Psychology, 21(2), 79-109. doi:10.1037/h0070539
Weiss, R.S. (1973/1985). Loneliness: The experience of emotional and social isolation. Baskerville, MA: The Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Wheeler, L., Reis, H., & Nezleck, J. (1983). Loneliness, social interaction, and sex roles. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(4), 943-953
Willetts, G., & Clarke, D. (2014). Constructing nurses’ professional identity through social identity theory. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 20, 164-169
Willson, D., Cutts, J., Lees, I., Mapingwana, S., & Maunganidze, l. (1992). Psychometrics properties of the revised UCLA loneliness scale and two short-form measures of loneliness in Zimbabwe. Journal of Personality Assessment, 59(1), 72-81
Winningham, R.G., & Pike, N.L. (2007). A cognitive intervention to enhance institutionalized older adults’ social support network and decrease loneliness. Aging and Mental Health, 11(6), 716-721
Wong, D. (2015). Asexuality in China’s sexual revolution: Asexual marriage as coping strategy. Sexualities, 18(1/2), 100–116, DOI: 10.1177/1363460714544812
Worland, J. (2015). Why Loneliness May Be the Next Big Public-Health Issue. Retrieved from: http://time.com/3747784/loneliness-mortality/
Zajonc, R. B. (1968). Attitudinal effects of mere exposure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 9(2, Pt.2), 1-27. doi:10.1037/h0025848
Zhang, F., You, Z., Fan, C., Goa, C., Cohen, R., Hsueh, Y., & Zhou Z. (2014). Friendship quality, social preference, proximity prestige and self-percieved social competence: Interactive influences on children’s loneliness. Journal of School Psychology, 52(2014), 511-526
Zimmer-Gembeck, M.J., Trevaskis, S., Nesdale, D., & Downey, G.A. (2014). Relational victimization, loneliness and depressive symptoms: Indirect associations via self and peer reports of rejection sensitivity. Journal of Youth Adolescents. 43, 568-582